- Delphinidae (Oceanic dolphins)
- Platanistidae (Indus and Ganges river dolphins)
- Iniidae (Amazon river dolphins)
- Pontoporiidae (La Plata river dolphins)
- Lipotidae (Baiji or Chinese river dolphins)
|36 (out of the 38) most known species of dolphins.|
How do dolphins breathe?
Dolphins are mammals, which means they breathe air into their lungs, just like we do. They cannot breathe underwater like fish since they don´t have gills.
|Anatomy of a dolphin (Wikipedia, accessed in November 2019).|
They breathe through the blowhole, adapted nostrils located right on top of their heads. When a dolphin breathes the air goes directly into their lungs, exhaling and inhaling rarely takes more than a fraction of one second and on average they take about 2-3 breaths per minute (Ponganis et al, 2003).
|Dolphin breathing at surface using its blowhole (photo by Mariana Silva)|
How Dolphins sleep/rest?
|Electroencephalograph which show the two hemispheres of a dolphin brain. We can see when one side is active the opposite side is dormant (Mukhametov LM et al, 1997).|
- Bruno Cozzi, Stefan Huggenberger, Helmut Oelschläger (2017). Diving: Breathing, Respiration, and the Circulatory System. Anatomy of Dolphins, 91-131.
- Cotten PB, Piscitelli MA, McLellan WA, Rommel SA, Dearolf JL, Pabst DA. (2008) The gross morphology and histochemistry of respiratory muscles in bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. J Morphol. 269(12):1520–1538.
- Klinowska, M. 1991. Dolphins, Porpoises and Whales of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland. 429 pp.
- Mukhametov LM, Oleksenko AI, Polyakova (1988) IG. Quantification of ECoG stages of sleep in the bottlenose dolphin. Neurophysiology.20:398–403.
- Oleksenko AI, Mukhametov LM, Polyakova IG, Supin AY, Kovalzon VM.(1992) Unihemispheric sleep deprivation in bottlenose dolphins. J Sleep Res.1:40–4.
- Ponganis, P. J., Kooyman, G. L. and Ridgway, S. H. (2003). Comparative diving physiology. In Bennett and Elliott’s Physiology and Medicine of Diving (ed. A. Brubakk and T. S. Neuman), pp. 211-226. Edinburgh: Saunders Ltd.